How do I recognize a prescription drug problem?
Prescription drug addiction warning signs include:
- Physical: Fatigue, repeated health complaints, red and glazed eyes and a lasting cough
- Emotional: Personality change, sudden mood changes, low self-esteem, irritability, irresponsible behavior, poor judgment, depression, general lack of interest
- Family: Starting arguments, breaking rules, withdrawing from the family
- School or Work: Decreased interest, negative attitude, many absences, truancy, visiting many doctors
- Social Problems: New anti-social friends, problems with the law, withdrawal from friends
The Office of Diversion Control (DEA) Practitioner’s Manual
Responsible Prescribing of Opioids for the Management
of Chronic Pain
Author: Nicholson B.
Source: Drugs, Volume 63, Number
1, 2003 , pp. 17-32(16)
& download fulltext article $68.55
The management of patients with chronic pain is a common clinical challenge.
Indeed, chronic pain is often inadequately controlled in patients with cancer
and in those with non-cancer chronic pain. Because of the complex nature of
chronic pain, successful long-term treatment is more difficult than for acute
pain. Most often acute pain is nociceptive, whereas chronic pain can be
nociceptive (i.e., in response to noxious stimuli), neuropathic (i.e.,
initiated by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system) or mixed in
Opioids are the current standard of care for the treatment of moderate or
severe nociceptive pain. Opioids mediate their actions by binding and
activating receptors both in the peripheral nervous system and those that are
found in inhibitory pain circuits that descend from the midbrain to the spinal
cord dorsal horn. Opioid agonists exert a number of physiological responses
including analgesia, which increases with increasing doses.
The use of opioids to manage pain in patients
with cancer is well accepted. The WHO step-wise algorithm for analgesic therapy
based on pain severity reserves the use of opioid therapy for moderate and
severe pain. The WHO algorithm has proven to be highly effective for the
management of cancer pain. However, the use of opioids to treat patients with
chronic non-cancer pain is controversial because of concerns about efficacy and
safety, and the possibility of addiction or abuse. ...